Include the first initial and last name of the person interviewed, the words, “personal communication,” and the date of the interview. Personal communication is not added to the References list.
Author. (Date). Title [Data set]. Organization. URL or DOI
Kappel, C., Wedding, L., & Lecky, J. (2017). Observed presence of alien and invasive algae, 2000-2013 - Hawaii [Data set]. Ocean Tipping Points. https://catalog.data.gov/dataset/observed-presence-of-alien-and-invasive-algae-2000-2013-hawaii
Author. (Date). Document title. Retrieved from (File Name and number--if available--and any other information needed to trace the report)
General Electric Co. (2009). SEC Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2009. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis Academic database.
In-text citation: (General Electric Co., 2009)
Twitter, Inc. (2014). SEC Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2013. Retrieved SEC EDGAR website https://www.sec.gov/edgar.shtm
In-text citation: (Twitter, 2014)
Disclosure Incorporated. (2009). International Business Machines: Disclosure report. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database.
In-text citation: (Disclosure Incorporated, 2009)
Texas Instruments. (2010). 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Retrieved from http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/investor/ar10/index.html
In-text citation: (Texas Instruments, 2010)
Name of agency. (Date). Title. URL
National Endowment for the Arts. (2020). How do we read? Let’s count the ways: Comparing digital, audio, and print-only readers. https://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/How%20Do%20We%20Read%20report%202020.pdf
Company Name. (Date). Report name. URL
General Motors. (2020). Form 10-K. https://investor.gm.com/static-files/6e1cc515-418e-4c5b-9526-f8ea41e02aef
The format is the same as a chapter in an edited book, with the instructor having the role of editor.
Smith, G. (2020). Interview skills list. In G. Smith (Ed.), ACES 100: Achieve Career/Education Success (pp. 3-4). Davenport University.
Turner, W., & Beam, V. (2020). High demand skills in today’s workforce. In G. Smith (Ed.), ACES 100: Achieve Career/Education Success (pp. 5-7). Davenport University.
Diagram of the heart. (n.d.). In R. Willis (Ed.), BIOL 115: Anatomy & Physiology with Human Disease I (p. 15). Davenport University.
Name of Company. (Year of publication). Title of publication.
General Motors. (2013). Employee handbook.
For your in-text citation, use the company name and year, such as (General Motors, 2013).
Author. (Date). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of collection (Call number, Box number, Folder number, etc.). Name and location of archives.
John Todd's Photo Service, Kalamazoo. [ca. 1935]. First Federal Savings and Loan building, fourth location of Parson's Business College, corner of Michigan and Park. [Original photographic print]. Kalamazoo/Iron Mountain Collection (Box 1, Folder 17). Davenport University Archives, Grand Rapids, MI.
Note: If the specific date is unknown but can be reasonably estimated, put ca. before the year (short for circa) and replace the parentheses with brackets.
Host’s Last Name, First Initial. (Host). (Date). Title [Audio or Video podcast]. In Title of series. Publisher. URL
Favreau, J., & Pfeiffer, D. (Hosts). (2020, March 26). Give me GDP, or give me death [Audio podcast episode]. In Pod save America. Crooked Media. https://crooked.com/podcast/give-me-gdp-or-give-me-death/
Host’s Last Name, First Initial. (Host). (Dates of series). Title of podcast [Audio or video podcast]. Publisher. URL
Loe, T. (Host). (2015-2019). Living homegrown [Audio podcast]. Living Homegrown Media. https://livinghomegrown.com/podcast/
Note: When Powerpoint slides are available only from an instructor through Blackboard, they are considered personal communication. Personal communication is cited in-text only in the body of your paper and not included on the References page. Use the format (First initial. Last name, personal communication, date of interaction) for your in-text citations. See the In-text Citation sections for examples.
If the slides are available online use the following format on your references page:
Last Name, First Initial. (year). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from url.
Individual or Group Author. (date). Title of document or report. Advertising Age. http://www.adage.com
Advertising Age Datacenter. (2018, August 7). Hispanic fact pack 2018. Advertising Age. http://www.adage.com
Example 1: (Advertising Age Datacenter, 2018)
Name of Company [Company Profile]. (date). Business Insights: Global. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage
General Motors Co. [Company Report]. (2020). Business Insights Global. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-insights-global
Example: (“General Motors Co.,” 2020)
Name of chart: List of companies, countries, or industries [Comparison Chart]. (date). Business Insights Global. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage
Revenue by company: General Motors Co and Ford Motor Co. [Comparison Chart]. (2020). Business Insights Global. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-insights-global
Example: (“Revenue by Company,” 2020)
NAICS code [Industry Data]. (date). RMA eStatement Studies. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage
3238320 - Painting and Wall Covering Contractors [Industry Data]. (2019). RMA eStatement Studies. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://www.rmahq.org/estatement-studies/
Example: (3238320 - Painting and Wall Covering Contractors, 2019)
Name of report: Name of geographic region(s) [Explanatory Note]. (date). Gale Business: Demographics Now. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage
Business comparison: 48906 Lansing, 48910 Lansing, 48911 Lansing, 48912 Lansing, 48915 Lansing, 48917 Lansing, 48933 Lansing [Demographic Data]. (2019). Gale Business: Demographics Now. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-demographicsnow
Example: (“Business Comparison,” 2019)
Name of topic [Topic Overview]. (Publication Year). Name of Database. URL of database homepage
Author’s last name, First initial(s). (Publication Year). Name of topic [Topic Overview]. Name of Database. URL of database homepage
Cyberbullying [Topic Overview]. (2020). Gale In Context: Global Issues. https://www.gale.com/c/in-context-global-issues
Lerner, K. L. (2019). Designer babies [Topic Overview]. Gale In Context: Science. https://www.gale.com/c/in-context-science
Example 1: (
Example 2: (Lerner, 2019)
Report Author. (date). Report title (Report number). IBISWorld. URL of database homepage
Fernandez, C. (2020, March). Paint manufacturing in the US (US Industry Report 32551). IBISWorld. https://my.ibisworld.com/
Example: (Fernandez, 2020)
Name of Report [Explanatory Note]. (Year of Publication). Dun & Bradstreet Key Business Ratios. URL of database homepage
SIC: 10-metal mining [Industry Report]. (2018). Dun & Bradstreet Key Business Ratios. https://www.mergentkbr.com/
Example 1: (
SIC: 10-Metal Mining, 2018)
Name of Company [Company Report]. (date). Mergent Online or Mergent Intellect. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage.
Steelcase Inc. [Company Report]. (2020). Mergent Online. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.mergentonline.com/login.php
Steelcase Inc., 2020)
Analyst’s last name, First initial. (Publication date). Title of report [Industry Report]. Mintel. URL of database homepage
Failla, J. (2019, July). Coffee – US [Industry Report]. Mintel. https://www.mintel.com/
Example: (Failla, 2019)
Author. (Date). Title [Data or Table]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved Retrieval date from URL of database homepage
National Sporting Goods Association. (n.d.). Youth sports: Ages 7-17 as % of participants, by sport [Data]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.sportsmarketanalytics.com/home.aspx
(National Sporting Goods Association, n.d.)
Title. (Date). Name of Article Series. URL of database homepage
Nike employees march at headquarters for women’s rights. (2019, December 10). SGB Update. https://www.sportsmarketanalytics.com/home.aspx
Nike Employees, 2019)
Most articles in SMA do not have authors listed. When that happens, the title goes in the Author position.
Name of report [Explanatory Note if necessary]. (date). Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage. Retrieved retrieval date, from S&P NetAdvantage database.
Herman Miller, Inc. (NasdaqGS:MLHR) public company profile. (2020). Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.capitaliq.com/CIQDotNet/my/dashboard.aspx
Herman Miller, Inc., 2020)
See Journal Articles with DOI if your article includes a doi.