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APA Help (7th Ed)

References: Other Sources

Personal Communication(interviews, e-mails, etc.)

Format

Include the first initial and last name of the person interviewed, the words, “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.  Personal communication is not added to the References list.

Examples

  • M. Schroeder (personal communication, January 25, 2009) emphasized the importance of immunization.
  • Immunization is important (M. Schroeder, personal communication, January 25, 2009).

Data Set

Format

Author. (Date). Title [Data set]. Organization. URL or DOI

Example

Kappel, C., Wedding, L., & Lecky, J. (2017). Observed presence of alien and invasive algae, 2000-2013 - Hawaii [Data set]. Ocean Tipping Points. https://catalog.data.gov/dataset/observed-presence-of-alien-and-invasive-algae-2000-2013-hawaii


Financial Report

Basic Format

Author. (Date). Document title. Retrieved from (File Name and number--if available--and any other information needed to trace the report)


When the company is the author

Example 1

General Electric Co. (2009). SEC Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2009. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis Academic database.

In-text citation: (General Electric Co., 2009)

Example 2

Twitter, Inc. (2014). SEC Form 10-K for the Year Ended December 31, 2013. Retrieved SEC EDGAR website https://www.sec.gov/edgar.shtm

In-text citation: (Twitter, 2014)


When the company is not the author

Disclosure Incorporated. (2009). International Business Machines: Disclosure report. Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database.

In-text citation: (Disclosure Incorporated, 2009)


From a free website

Texas Instruments. (2010). 2010 Annual Report to Shareholders. Retrieved from http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/investor/ar10/index.html

In-text citation: (Texas Instruments, 2010)


Report / White Paper

Government Report

Format

Name of agency. (Date). Title. URL

Example

National Endowment for the Arts. (2020). How do we read? Let’s count the ways: Comparing digital, audio, and print-only readers. https://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/How%20Do%20We%20Read%20report%202020.pdf


Annual Report

Format

Company Name. (Date). Report name. URL

Example

General Motors. (2020). Form 10-K. https://investor.gm.com/static-files/6e1cc515-418e-4c5b-9526-f8ea41e02aef


Course Pack

The format is the same as a chapter in an edited book, with the instructor having the role of editor.

Original material in a course pack, with author(s)

Smith, G. (2020). Interview skills list. In G. Smith (Ed.), ACES 100: Achieve Career/Education Success (pp. 3-4). Davenport University.

Turner, W., & Beam, V. (2020). High demand skills in today’s workforce. In G. Smith (Ed.), ACES 100: Achieve Career/Education Success (pp. 5-7). Davenport University.

In-Text Citations

  • (Smith, 2020)
  • (Turner & Beam, 2020)

Original material in a course pack, no author

Diagram of the heart. (n.d.). In R. Willis (Ed.), BIOL 115: Anatomy & Physiology with Human Disease I (p. 15). Davenport University.

In-Text Citation

  • (“Diagram of the Heart,” n.d.)

Employee Handbook (Print Version)

Format

Name of Company. (Year of publication). Title of publication.

Example

General Motors. (2013). Employee handbook.

For your in-text citation, use the company name and year, such as (General Motors, 2013).


Item From Archives

Format

Author. (Date). Title of material. [Description of material]. Name of collection (Call number, Box number, Folder number, etc.). Name and location of archives.

Example

John Todd's Photo Service, Kalamazoo. [ca. 1935]. First Federal Savings and Loan building, fourth location of Parson's Business College, corner of Michigan and Park. [Original photographic print]. Kalamazoo/Iron Mountain Collection (Box 1, Folder 17). Davenport University Archives, Grand Rapids, MI.

Note: If the specific date is unknown but can be reasonably estimated, put ca. before the year (short for circa) and replace the parentheses with brackets.


Podcast

Podcast Episode

Format

Host’s Last Name, First Initial. (Host). (Date). Title [Audio or Video podcast]. In Title of series. Publisher. URL

Example

Favreau, J., & Pfeiffer, D. (Hosts). (2020, March 26). Give me GDP, or give me death [Audio podcast episode]. In Pod save America. Crooked Media. https://crooked.com/podcast/give-me-gdp-or-give-me-death/


Podcast Series

Format

Host’s Last Name, First Initial. (Host). (Dates of series). Title of podcast [Audio or video podcast]. Publisher. URL

Example

Loe, T. (Host). (2015-2019). Living homegrown [Audio podcast]. Living Homegrown Media. https://livinghomegrown.com/podcast/


PowerPoint Slides

Note: When Powerpoint slides are available only from an instructor through Blackboard, they are considered personal communication.  Personal communication is cited in-text only in the body of your paper and not included on the References page.  Use the format (First initial. Last name, personal communication, date of interaction) for your in-text citations.  See the In-text Citation sections for examples.

If the slides are available online use the following format on your references page:

Format

Last Name, First Initial. (year). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from url.


Unusual Database

Advertising Age Datacenter

Format

Individual or Group Author. (date). Title of document or report. Advertising Age. http://www.adage.com

Example

Advertising Age Datacenter. (2018, August 7). Hispanic fact pack 2018. Advertising Age. http://www.adage.com

In-Text Citation

Example 1: (Advertising Age Datacenter, 2018)

Business Insights: Global

Company Profile

Format

Name of Company [Company Profile]. (date). Business Insights: Global. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage

Example

General Motors Co. [Company Report]. (2020). Business Insights Global. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-insights-global

In-Text Citation

Example: (“General Motors Co.,” 2020)


Comparison Chart

Format

Name of chart: List of companies, countries, or industries [Comparison Chart]. (date). Business Insights Global. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage

Example

Revenue by company: General Motors Co and Ford Motor Co. [Comparison Chart]. (2020). Business Insights Global. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-insights-global

In-Text Citation

Example: (“Revenue by Company,” 2020)


eStatement Studies

Format

NAICS code [Industry Data]. (date). RMA eStatement Studies. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage

Example

3238320 - Painting and Wall Covering Contractors [Industry Data]. (2019). RMA eStatement Studies. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://www.rmahq.org/estatement-studies/

In-Text Citation

Example: (3238320 - Painting and Wall Covering Contractors, 2019)


Demographics Now

Format

Name of report: Name of geographic region(s) [Explanatory Note]. (date). Gale Business: Demographics Now. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage

Example

Business comparison: 48906 Lansing, 48910 Lansing, 48911 Lansing, 48912 Lansing, 48915 Lansing, 48917 Lansing, 48933 Lansing [Demographic Data]. (2019). Gale Business: Demographics Now. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-demographicsnow

In-Text Citation

Example: (“Business Comparison,” 2019)


Gale In Context Databases - Topic Overview

Format

No Author Given

Name of topic [Topic Overview]. (Publication Year). Name of Database. URL of database homepage

Author Given

Author’s last name, First initial(s). (Publication Year). Name of topic [Topic Overview]. Name of Database. URL of database homepage

Examples

Cyberbullying [Topic Overview]. (2020). Gale In Context: Global Issues. https://www.gale.com/c/in-context-global-issues

Lerner, K. L. (2019). Designer babies [Topic Overview]. Gale In Context: Science. https://www.gale.com/c/in-context-science

In-Text Citations

Example 1: (Cyberbullying, 2020)

Example 2: (Lerner, 2019)


IBISWorld

Format

Report Author. (date). Report title (Report number). IBISWorld. URL of database homepage

Example

Fernandez, C. (2020, March). Paint manufacturing in the US (US Industry Report 32551). IBISWorld. https://my.ibisworld.com/

In-Text Citation

Example: (Fernandez, 2020)


KBR

Format

Name of Report [Explanatory Note]. (Year of Publication). Dun & Bradstreet Key Business Ratios. URL of database homepage

Example

SIC: 10-metal mining [Industry Report]. (2018). Dun & Bradstreet Key Business Ratios. https://www.mergentkbr.com/

In-Text Citation

Example 1: (SIC: 10-Metal Mining, 2018)


Mergent Online and Mergent Intellect

Format

Name of Company [Company Report]. (date). Mergent Online or Mergent Intellect. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage.

Example

Steelcase Inc. [Company Report]. (2020). Mergent Online. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.mergentonline.com/login.php

In-Text Citation

Example: (Steelcase Inc., 2020)


Mintel

Format

Analyst’s last name, First initial. (Publication date). Title of report [Industry Report]. Mintel. URL of database homepage

Example

Failla, J. (2019, July). Coffee – US [Industry Report]. Mintel. https://www.mintel.com/

In-Text Citation

Example: (Failla, 2019)


Sport Market Analytics

Data or Table

Format

Author. (Date). Title [Data or Table]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved Retrieval date from URL of database homepage

Example

National Sporting Goods Association. (n.d.). Youth sports: Ages 7-17 as % of participants, by sport [Data]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.sportsmarketanalytics.com/home.aspx

In-Text Citation

(National Sporting Goods Association, n.d.)


Articles or Reports

Format

Title. (Date). Name of Article Series. URL of database homepage

Example

Nike employees march at headquarters for women’s rights. (2019, December 10). SGB Update. https://www.sportsmarketanalytics.com/home.aspx

In-Text Citation

(Nike Employees, 2019)


Most articles in SMA do not have authors listed. When that happens, the title goes in the Author position.

Standard & Poor’s

Format

Name of report [Explanatory Note if necessary]. (date). Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage. Retrieved retrieval date, from S&P Net­Advantage database.

Example

Herman Miller, Inc. (NasdaqGS:MLHR) public company profile. (2020). Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.capitaliq.com/CIQDotNet/my/dashboard.aspx

In-Text Citation

Example: (Herman Miller, Inc., 2020)


See Journal Articles with DOI if your article includes a doi.