Last name, First initial(s).
Follett, K. (2020). The evening and the morning. Viking.
Kendi, I. X. (2019). How to be antiracist. One World.
Coates, T.-N. (2015). Between the world and me. Spiegel & Grau.
Parenthetical: (Follett, 2020)
Narrative: Follett (2020)...
Last Name, First Initial(s)., & Last Name, First Initial(s).
Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2012). Learning, attentional control, and action video games. Current Biology, 22(6), R197-R206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.02.012
Parenthetical: (Green & Bavelier, 2012)
Narrative: Green and Bavelier (2012)...
Last Name, First Initial(s)., Last Name, First Initial(s)., Last Name, First Initial(s)., & Last Name, First Intial(s).
Primack, B. A., Carroll, M. V., McNamara, M., Klem, M. L., King, B., Rich, M., Chan, C. W., & Nayak, S. (2012). Role of video games in improving health-related outcomes: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(6), 630-638, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.02.023
Parenthetical: (Primack et al., 2012)
Narrative: Primack et al. (2012)...
First 19 authors., . . . Last author.
Arsenault, K. R., Shukla, S., Hazra, A., Getirana, A., McNally, A., Kumar, S. V., Koster, R. D., Peters-Lidard, C. D., Zaitchik, B. F., Badr, H., Jung, H. C., Narapusetty, B., Navari, M., Wang, S., Mocko, D. M., Funk, C., Harrison, L., Husak, G. J., Adoum, A., . . . Verdin, J. P. (2020). The NASA hydrological forecast system for food and water security applications. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101(7), E1007–E1025. https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0264.1
Parenthetical: (Arsenault et al., 2020)
Narrative: Arsenault et al. (2020)...
Full Name of Group.
Full Name of First Group & Full Name of Second Group
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2020, April). Characteristics of minimum wage workers, 2019 (Report 1085). https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/minimum-wage/2019/home.htm
Belize Central Statistical Office & U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). 1999 Belize family health survey: Males. https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/8236
When no person or group can be identified as the author, the title moves to the author spot in the reference.
Sally spreading torrential rainfall, flooding to Georgia, Carolinas, Virginia. (2020, September 17). The Weather Channel. https://weather.com/storms/hurricane/news/2020-09-17-tropical-depression-sally-forecast-georgia-carolinas-virginia
Parenthetical: ("Sally Spreading Torrential Rainfall," 2020)
List the works by order of date, oldest to newest. Works with no dates come before works with dates.
Benjamin, K. (n.d.).
Benjamin, K. (2014).
Benjamin, K. (2019).
First check to see if a specific date for each work can be found and list them in chronological order. Works with only a year should be listed before works with a more specific date (ex: 2020 would come before 2020, September). If two works have the same publication date, organize them alphabetically by the title of the work. Assign letter suffixes to the year so that readers can find the correct reference from the in-text citation (examples (2019a), (2019b) etc.)
Berndt, T. J. (2004a). Children’s friendships: Shifts over a half-century in perspectives on their development and their effects. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 206-223.
Berndt, T. J. (2004b). Friendship and three A’s (aggression, adjustment, and attachment). Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88(1), 1-4.
Don't use a comma between the two names (unlike the personal names).
Keep the hyphens in the names if spelled that way.
The last name prefixes are included as part of the last name. Include them, keeping the spacing and their preferred capitalization.
When suffixes are part of the name to distinguish them from others of the same name, include them.
Do not include titles.
When people are known by a single name, a performance name, or a username, spell it out completely in the same order, not reversing it.
When social media names include the @ sign, such as on the Twitter and Instagram platforms, use the real name with the @ name in square brackets after. For ones that don’t (Facebook, YouTube, TikTok, etc.), use their real name or if they are only known by their account name, see the example under Performance, Literary, and Celebrity Names.
In some Asian cultures, last names/surnames are listed first, then the first name (Chang Yi-Chun). When publishing in English publications, they may default to the English language order (Yi-Chun Chang). Sometimes the surname is listed in all capital letters (CHANG Yi-Chun). Try to determine the surname. In APA any of the variations of Chang Yi-Chun’s name will be Chang, Y.-C.