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APA Help (7th Ed)

References: Online Sources

Website

Format

Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Date). Title of article. Name of Website. URL.

Example

Barden, B. (2020, March 14). The actor who was really stabbed on stage. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/stories-51878964


Website with a Group Author

Format

Group Author Name. (Date). Title. URL

Example

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, October 11). Foods that can cause food poisoning. https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/foods-linked-illness.html


Whole Website

Do not create references or in-text citations for whole websites. To mention a website in general, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses.

Example

The team utilized PubMed for their research project (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/).


Online Image

Online Image (Known Artist)

Format

Artist’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Date). Title [Description]. Source, Location. URL

Example

Shaunessy, M.R. (n.d.) Babi Yar [photograph]. Creative Commons. https://ccsearch.creativecommons.org/photos/104d40e9-c2e3-4274-bed7-d71103f64126


Online Image (Unknown Artist)

Format

[Title][Description]. (Date). Source, Location. URL

Example

[Maimonides teaches about the 'measure of men'][Manuscript illumination]. (1347). Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Measure_of_men.jpg


Online Video (YouTube, Vimeo, Etc.)

Format

Author’s Last Name, First Initial(s). (Date). Title [Video]. URL

Example

Braxman, R. (2019, February 26). What is the best browser for internet privacy? [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZTXGUjHTJc


Report / White Paper

Government Report

Format

Name of agency. (Date). Title. URL

Example

National Endowment for the Arts. (2020). How do we read? Let’s count the ways: Comparing digital, audio, and print-only readers. https://www.arts.gov/sites/default/files/How%20Do%20We%20Read%20report%202020.pdf


Annual Report

Format

Company Name. (Date). Report name. URL

Example

General Motors. (2020). Form 10-K. https://investor.gm.com/static-files/6e1cc515-418e-4c5b-9526-f8ea41e02aef


Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia

Format

Author. (Date). Title of entry. In Name of reference work. URL

Example

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Cat. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved March 31, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/cat


Wikipedia Entry

Format

Title. (Date). In Wikipedia. URL

Example

List of breweries in Michigan. (2020, February 23). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_breweries_in_Michigan


Online Forum (Reddit, Etc.)

Online Forum: Name of Person Posting is Known

Format

Last name, First initial. [username]. (Date). Title [Online forum post]. Name of Website. URL

Example

Carter, L. [OfficialLyndaCarter]. (2020, November 18). I'm Lynda Carter, Wonder Woman actress & singer. Ask me anything! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/jwjaq4/im_lynda_carter_wonder_woman_actress_singer_ask/


Online Forum: Only Username is Available

Format

username. (Date). Title [Online forum post]. Name of Website. URL

Example

u/carbonclasssix. (2020, December 2). Seeing depression in the pupil; study proves correlation [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/science/comments/k5azru/seeing_depression_in_the_pupil_study_proves/


Online Forum Comment: Name of Person Posting is Known

Format

Last name, First initial. [username]. (Date). Text of comment up to 20 words [Comment on the online forum Title of forum]. Name of Website. URL

Example

Carter, L. [OfficialLyndaCarter]. (2020, November 18). I have quite a collection of memorabilia! I have the original costume, bracelets, boots, everything. The costume was actually on [Comment on the online forum post I'm Lynda Carter, Wonder Woman actress & singer. Ask me anything!]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/jwjaq4/im_lynda_carter_wonder_woman_actress_singer_ask/gcqi5jz/?utm_source=reddit&utm_medium=web2x&context=3


Online Forum Comment: Only Username is Available

Format

username. (Date). Text of comment up to 20 words [Comment on the online forum Title of forum]. Name of Website. URL

Example

sovereignbiopolitic. (2020, November 18). How can people support biodiversity and/or reforestation in their daily life? [Comment on the online forum post I am an ecologist exploring the role forests play in tackling climate change. Ask me anything!]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/jwhvgc/i_am_an_ecologist_exploring_the_role_forests_play/gcqel1f/?utm_source=reddit&utm_medium=web2x&context=3


Unusual Database

Advertising Age Datacenter

Format

Individual or Group Author. (date). Title of document or report. Advertising Age. http://www.adage.com

Example

Advertising Age Datacenter. (2018, August 7). Hispanic fact pack 2018. Advertising Age. http://www.adage.com

In-Text Citation

Example 1: (Advertising Age Datacenter, 2018)

Business Insights: Global

Company Profile

Format

Name of Company [Company Profile]. (date). Business Insights: Global. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage

Example

General Motors Co. [Company Report]. (2020). Business Insights Global. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-insights-global

In-Text Citation

Example: (“General Motors Co.,” 2020)


Comparison Chart

Format

Name of chart: List of companies, countries, or industries [Comparison Chart]. (date). Business Insights Global. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage

Example

Revenue by company: General Motors Co and Ford Motor Co. [Comparison Chart]. (2020). Business Insights Global. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-insights-global

In-Text Citation

Example: (“Revenue by Company,” 2020)


eStatement Studies

Format

NAICS code [Industry Data]. (date). RMA eStatement Studies. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage

Example

3238320 - Painting and Wall Covering Contractors [Industry Data]. (2019). RMA eStatement Studies. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://www.rmahq.org/estatement-studies/

In-Text Citation

Example: (3238320 - Painting and Wall Covering Contractors, 2019)


Demographics Now

Format

Name of report: Name of geographic region(s) [Explanatory Note]. (date). Gale Business: Demographics Now. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage

Example

Business comparison: 48906 Lansing, 48910 Lansing, 48911 Lansing, 48912 Lansing, 48915 Lansing, 48917 Lansing, 48933 Lansing [Demographic Data]. (2019). Gale Business: Demographics Now. Retrieved June 2, 2020, from https://www.gale.com/c/business-demographicsnow

In-Text Citation

Example: (“Business Comparison,” 2019)


Gale In Context Databases - Topic Overview

Format

No Author Given

Name of topic [Topic Overview]. (Publication Year). Name of Database. URL of database homepage

Author Given

Author’s last name, First initial(s). (Publication Year). Name of topic [Topic Overview]. Name of Database. URL of database homepage

Examples

Cyberbullying [Topic Overview]. (2020). Gale In Context: Global Issues. https://www.gale.com/c/in-context-global-issues

Lerner, K. L. (2019). Designer babies [Topic Overview]. Gale In Context: Science. https://www.gale.com/c/in-context-science

In-Text Citations

Example 1: (Cyberbullying, 2020)

Example 2: (Lerner, 2019)


IBISWorld

Format

Report Author. (date). Report title (Report number). IBISWorld. URL of database homepage

Example

Fernandez, C. (2020, March). Paint manufacturing in the US (US Industry Report 32551). IBISWorld. https://my.ibisworld.com/

In-Text Citation

Example: (Fernandez, 2020)


KBR

Format

Name of Report [Explanatory Note]. (Year of Publication). Dun & Bradstreet Key Business Ratios. URL of database homepage

Example

SIC: 10-metal mining [Industry Report]. (2018). Dun & Bradstreet Key Business Ratios. https://www.mergentkbr.com/

In-Text Citation

Example 1: (SIC: 10-Metal Mining, 2018)


Mergent Online and Mergent Intellect

Format

Name of Company [Company Report]. (date). Mergent Online or Mergent Intellect. Retrieved retrieval date, from URL of database homepage.

Example

Steelcase Inc. [Company Report]. (2020). Mergent Online. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.mergentonline.com/login.php

In-Text Citation

Example: (Steelcase Inc., 2020)


Mintel

Format

Analyst’s last name, First initial. (Publication date). Title of report [Industry Report]. Mintel. URL of database homepage

Example

Failla, J. (2019, July). Coffee – US [Industry Report]. Mintel. https://www.mintel.com/

In-Text Citation

Example: (Failla, 2019)


Sport Market Analytics

Data or Table

Format

Author. (Date). Title [Data or Table]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved Retrieval date from URL of database homepage

Example

National Sporting Goods Association. (n.d.). Youth sports: Ages 7-17 as % of participants, by sport [Data]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved August 12, 2020 from https://www.sportsmarketanalytics.com/home.aspx

In-Text Citation

(National Sporting Goods Association, n.d.)


Articles or Reports

Format

Title. (Date). Name of Article Series. URL of database homepage

Example

Nike employees march at headquarters for women’s rights. (2019, December 10). SGB Update. https://www.sportsmarketanalytics.com/home.aspx

In-Text Citation

(Nike Employees, 2019)


Most articles in SMA do not have authors listed. When that happens, the title goes in the Author position.

Standard & Poor’s

Format

Name of report [Explanatory Note if necessary]. (date). Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage. Retrieved retrieval date, from S&P Net­Advantage database.

Example

Herman Miller, Inc. (NasdaqGS:MLHR) public company profile. (2020). Standard & Poor’s NetAdvantage. Retrieved June 4, 2020, from https://www.capitaliq.com/CIQDotNet/my/dashboard.aspx

In-Text Citation

Example: (Herman Miller, Inc., 2020)


See Journal Articles with DOI if your article includes a doi.

Ted Talk

Format

Author. (Date). Title [Video]. Source. URL

Example

Tompkins, K. (2020, April). Let’s make the world wild again [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/kristine_tompkins_let_s_make_the_world_wild_again

TED. (2016, April 6). Tim Urban: Inside the mind of a master procrastinator [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=arj7oStGLkU


Blog

Format

Author. (Date). Title. Name of Site. URL

Example

Tucker, N. (2020, July 21). Can I copyright this? Library of Congress Blog. https://blogs.loc.gov/loc/2020/07/can-i-copyright-this/


Webinar

Format

Author. (Date). Name of webinar [Webinar]. Name of Organization. URL

Example

Dale, L. & Fink, M. (2020, May 5). Data for decision making [Webinar]. Infopeople. https://infopeople.org/civicrm/event/info?reset=1&id=895


TV Show (Web Episode)

TV Series

Format

Names of Executive Producers (Executive Producers). (Year range of show). Title [TV Series]. Production Company(s).

Example

Schur, M., Miner, D., Sackett, M. & Goddard, D. (Executive Producers). (2016-2020). The good place [TV Series]. Fremulon; 3 Arts Entertainment; Universal Television.

Note: If the series is still airing, use present in place of the second year in the range. Separate the names of production companies with a semicolon.


TV Series Episode

Format

Contributor names (Roles in parentheses). (Date of episode). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number) [TV series episode]. In First Initial(s). Last Name(s) (Executive Producer), Title of Series. Production Company or Companies.

Example

Schur, M. (Writer), & Goddard, D. (Director). (2016, September 19). Pilot (Season 1, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In M. Schur, D. Miner, M. Sackett, & D. Goddard (Executive Producers), The good place. Fremulon; 3 Arts Entertainment; Universal Television.

Note: Format the names of executive producers the same way you would format the editors of a book. Separate the names of production companies with a semicolon.


Online Map

Dynamically Created Map

Format

Author. (Date). [Description of map]. Retrieved date from url

Example

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving between the Davenport University Grand Rapids and Lansing campuses]. Retrieved April 30, 2020 from https://goo.gl/maps/sQv9FU1EXB54Rbv18


Non-Dynamically Created Map

Format

Author. (Date). Title [Map]. Publisher. URL

Example

Potter Park Zoo. (n.d.). Potter Park Zoo [Map]. https://potterparkzoo.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/PPZ-2019-Map.pdf