In-text citations direct the reader to a specific source on your references page.
|Author||Parenthetical Citation||Narrative Citation|
|One author||(Smith, 2019)||According to Smith (2019)...|
|Two authors||(Smith & Hill, 2018)||As Smith and Hill (2018) say...|
|Three or more authors||(Smith et al., 2020)||Similar to Smith et al. (2020)...|
|Group author||(Davenport University, 2019)||According to Davenport University (2019)...|
|Group author with an abbreviation||
First citation: (American Civil Liberties Union [ACLU], 2020)
Subsequent citations: (ACLU, 2020)
First citation: As the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU, 2020) writes...
Subsequent citations: According to the ACLU (2020)...
If you name the author in your sentence, you need to include the publication year in parenthesis.
If you do not include the author’s name in the sentence, place the author’s name and year in parenthesis at the end of your sentence.
If you are quoting, you also need to include the page or paragraph number where the quote can be found. This is similarly encouraged (though not necessarily required) when paraphrasing to help guide the reader to the relevant passage.
When citing a source written by a group author, write out the full name of the group. If the organization has a common abbreviation, it should be added in brackets in the first citation, and then used in later citations.
If there are 2 authors, type both names every time you cite the source.
If there are 3 or more authors, use the first author’s name and et al.
If no author is listed use a shortened version of the title in quotations.
Include the first initial and last name of the person interviewed, the words, “personal communication,” and the date of the interview. Personal communication is not added to the References list.
Indirect sources are sources referenced outside their original location (e.g. a speech or book quoted in a different book). To cite these, mention the original author in the body of your paper, then cite and reference in APA format the secondary work that quoted the original.
First Author said that... (as cited in Second Author, year)
Johnson argued that... (as cited in Smith, 2018)