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APA Help

In-Text Citations

In-text citations direct the reader to a specific source on your references page.  For more detail, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

One Author

If you name the author in your sentence, you need to include the publication year in parenthesis.


  • According to Meechum (2010), the company’s stock price is predicted to rise.

If you do not include the author’s name in the sentence, place the author’s name and year in parenthesis at the end of your sentence.


  • The company’s stock price is predicted to rise (Meechum, 2010).

If you are quoting, you also need to include the page or paragraph number where the quote can be found.


  • “The company’s stock price is likely to rise” (Meechum, 2010, para. 5).
  • “There have been fewer reported cases of the flu this year” (Patel, 2010, p. 3).

When citing a source written by a group author, write out the full name of the group.  If the organization has a common abbreviation, it should be added in brackets in the first citation, and then used in later citations.

First citation:

  • (American Civil Liberties Union [ACLU], 2010)

Second citation:

  • (ACLU, 2010).

Multiple Authors

If there are two authors, type both names every time you cite the source.


  • Xing and Allen (2009) found the seniors in the test group embraced new technology.
  • Seniors in the test group embraced new technology (Xing & Allen, 2009).

If there are three to five authors, type all the names the first time you cite the source and then use the first name and the abbreviation et al. in later citations.

First citation

  • Barnard, Clay, and Barkley (2008) found telemarketing to be ineffective.
  • Telemarketing was found to be ineffective (Barnard, Clay, & Barkley, 2008).

Second citation

  • Barnard, et al. (2008) recorded positive customer reaction to the “Do Not Call” registry.
  • Customer reaction to the “Do Not Call” registry was positive (Barnard et al., 2008).

If there are six or more authors, use the first author’s name and et al.


  • Reyes, et al (2009) recorded the reaction to human rights violations along the United States-Mexico border.

No Author

If no author is listed, use a shortened version of the title in quotations.


  • The county is experiencing rising unemployment (“Unemployment Figures,” 2010).

Personal Communication
(interviews, e-mails, etc.)


Include the first initial and last name of the person interviewed, the words, “personal communication,” and the date of the interview.  Personal communication is not added to the References list.


  • M. Schroeder (personal communication, January 25, 2009) emphasized the importance of immunization.
  • Immunization is important (M. Schroeder, personal communication, January 25, 2009).

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