Cases are published in reporters. Typically, a case citation is comprised of:
Here is an example of a Michigan case:
People v. Phillips, 416 Mich. 63, 330 N.W.2d 366 (1982)
In the example above, the first citation (416 Mich. 63) is from Michigan’s official state reporter, while the second citation (330 N.W.2d 366) is where the decision will be found in its applicable regional reporter.
The regional reporters are published by West Publishing Co. and include West’s topics and key numbers.
The state of Michigan is located in West’s Northwestern reporter which corresponds to the abbreviation N.W.2d found above. (Taken from https://www.cooley.edu/library/research_guides/Legal_Citations.pdf)
Often, a case is reported or printed in more than one set of books and then all of the cites to that opinion are given; these are known as parallel citations.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange v. Deaktor, 410 U.S. 113, 93 S.Ct. 705, 35 L.Ed. 2d 147 (1973).
In this example, the United States Reports citation, described earlier, is given first and is followed by the Supreme Court Reporter and the United States Supreme Court Reports Lawyers’ Edition citations, commonly referred to as the Lawyer’s Edition. The other citations are parallel citations.
Opinions of the U.S. Supreme Court as reported in three different reporters: the United States Reports (the official reporter); the Supreme Court Reporter; and the Lawyers’ Edition. The text of the court’s opinion will be the same in either one of the reporters. The only difference will be the editorial treatment made by the different publishers of these reporters. (Taken from https://www.cooley.edu/library/research_guides/Legal_Citations.pdf)
A federal statutory citation generally contains the following elements:
|Title||Bluebook Abbreviation||Michigan Uniform Abbreviation||Content|
|American Jurisprudence, 2d ed.||Am. Jur. 2d||(Am Jur 2d)||encyclopedia|
|Code of Federal Regulations||C.F.R.||(CFR)||federal regulations arranged by subject|
|Corpus Juris Secundum||C.J.S||(CJS)||encyclopedia|
|West’s Education Law Reporter||Educ. L. Rep.||(Educ L Rep)||state and federal education cases from 1982 to present|
|Federal Reporter, 1st, 2d and 3d series||F., F.2d, F.3d||(F, F2d,F3d)||cases from United States Courts of Appeals|
|Federal Register||Fed. Reg.||(Fed Reg)||federal regulations by date|
|Federal Supplement, 1st and 2d series||F. Supp., F. Supp. 2d||(F Supp, F Supp 2d)||cases from United States District Courts|
|United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers’ Edition, 1st and 2nd series||L. Ed., L. Ed.2d||(L Ed, L Ed 2d)||United States Supreme Court Cases|
|Michigan Compiled Laws Service||(MCLS)||Michigan law|
|Michigan Reports||Mich.||(Mich)||official decisions of Michigan Supreme Court|
|Michigan Appeals Reports||Mich. App.||(Mich App)||official decisions of Michigan Court of Appeals|
|Michigan Administrative Code||Mich. Admin. Code||Compilation of all adopted rules and regulations in effect in the state of Michigan|
|Michigan Compiled Laws||Mich. Comp. Laws||(MCL)||official codification of statutes for the state of Michigan|
|Michigan Compiled Laws Annotated||Mich. Comp. Laws Ann.||(MCLA)||MCL with annotations|
|Public and Local Acts of the Legislature of the State of Michigan||Mich. Pub. Acts||(PA)||public and local actsf of the legislature of the state of Michigan|
|Michigan Register||Mich. Reg.||(MR)||regulatory information that supplements the Mich. Admin. Code|
|United States Statutes at Large||Stat.||federal statutes arranged by date|
|United States Reports||U.S.||(US)||United States Supreme Court Cases|
|United States Code||U.S.C.||(USC)||federal statutes arranged by subject|
|United States Code Annotated||U.S.C.A.||(USCA)||federal statutes arranged by subject|
|United States Code Service||U.S.C.S||(USCS)||federal statutes arranged by subject|